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    Acne Vulgaris

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 01/04/2009
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    Acne Vulgaris

    مُساهمة من طرف sahare في الأربعاء أبريل 01, 2009 9:35 am

    I. INTRODUCTION :

    Studies show that during adolescence close to 100% of the population has at least an occasional whitehead, blackhead or pimple—regardless of race or ethnicity
    Acne is most common during adolescence, affecting more than 85% of teenagers, and frequently continues into adulthood. [2] For most people, acne diminishes over time and tends to disappear, or at least decrease, after one reaches his or her early twenties. There is, however, no way to predict how long it will take for it to disappear entirely, and some individuals will continue to suffer from acne decades later, into their thirties and forties and even beyond


    Adolescent Acne

    Studies show that during adolescence close to 100% of the population has at least an occasional whitehead, blackhead or pimple—regardless of race or ethnicity. These studies also confirm that acne most frequently occurs between the ages of 12 and 20. The likelihood of developing acne is greatest during adolescence because hormone levels become elevated. Elevated hormones stimulate the sebaceous glands, glands that are attached to hair follicles, to produce greater amounts of sebum—an oily substance. An acne lesion (whitehead, blackhead or pimple) occurs when a hair follicle becomes plugged with the sebum and dead cells.In most cases, acne begins between the ages of 10 and 13 and usually lasts for 5 to 10 years. In some adolescents, more severe acne follows the development of comedones, reaching a peak 3 to 5 years after the first comedones appear. Adolescent acne commonly disappears between the ages 20 and 25. However, severe acne, also known as nodular acne or cystic acne, may not resolve until 30-plus years of age
    .
    What is Acne?

    Acne is the term for plugged pores (blackheads and whiteheads), pimples, and even deeper lumps (cysts or nodules) that occur on the face, neck, chest, back, shoulders and even the upper arms. Acne affects most teenagers to some extent. However, the disease is not restricted to any age group; adults in their 20s - even into their 40s - can get acne. While not a life threatening condition, acne can be upsetting and disfiguring. When severe, acne can lead to serious and permanent scarring. Even less severe cases can lead to scarring
    .
    What causes acne?

    Acne starts when oil and dead skin cells clog the skin's pores. If germs get into the pores, the result can be swelling, redness, and pus. See a picture of how pimples form.For most people, acne starts during the teen years. This is because hormone changes make the skin more oily after puberty starts.
    You do not get acne from eating chocolate or greasy foods. But you can make it worse by using oily skin products that clog your pores. Exactly why some people get acne and some do not is not fully known. It is known to be partly hereditary. Several factors are known to be linked to acne:
    Family/Genetic history. The tendency to develop acne runs in families. For example, school-age boys with acne have other members of their family with acne. A family history of acne is associated with an earlier occurrence of acne and an increased number of retentional acne lesions. [8] Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles and puberty. During puberty, an increase in male sex hormones called androgens cause the glands to get larger and make more sebum. [9]
    Stress, through increased output of hormones from the adrenal (stress) glands.
    Hyperactive sebaceous glands, secondary to the three hormone sources above.
    Accumulation of dead skin cells.
    Bacteria in the pores. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium that causes acne. In-vitro resistance of P. acnes to commonly used antibiotics has been increasing. [10] Skin irritation or scratching of any sort will activate inflammation. Use of anabolic steroids. Any medication containing halogens (iodides, chlorides, bromides), lithium, barbiturates, or androgens
    .
    Who gets acne?

    Close to 100% of people between the ages of twelve and seventeen have at least an occasional whitehead, blackhead or pimple, regardless of race or ethnicity. Many of these young people are able to manage their acne with over-the-counter (nonprescription) treatments. For some, however, acne is more serious. In fact, by their mid-teens, more than 40% of adolescents have acne severe enough to require some treatment by a physician.
    In most cases, acne starts between the ages of ten and thirteen and usually lasts for five to ten years. It normally goes away on its own sometime in the early twenties. However, acne can persist into the late twenties or thirties or even beyond. Some people get acne for the first time as adults.
    Acne affects young men and young women about equally, but there are differences. Young men are more likely than young women to have more severe, longer lasting forms of acne. Despite this fact, young men are less likely than young women to visit a dermatologist for their acne. In contrast, young women are more likely to have intermittent acne due to hormonal changes associated with their menstrual cycle and acne caused by cosmetics. These kinds of acne may afflict young women well into adulthood.
    Acne lesions are most common on the face, but they can also occur on the neck, chest, back, shoulders, scalp, and upper arms and legs.
    Acne also has significant economic impact. Americans spend well over a hundred million dollars a year for nonprescription acne treatments, not even taking into account special soaps and cleansers. But there are also the costs of prescription therapies, visits to physicians and time lost from school or work.
    What are the symptoms?
    Symptoms of acne include whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. These can occur on the face, neck, shoulders, back, or chest. Pimples that are large and deep are called cystic lesions. These can be painful if they get infected. They also can scar the skin.
    How is acne treated?

    Acne treatment depends on whether you have a mild, moderate, or severe form. Sometimes your doctor will combine treatments to get the best results and to avoid developing drug-resistant bacteria. Treatment could include lotions or gels you put on blemishes or sometimes entire areas of skin, such as the chest or back (topical medications). You might also take medications by mouth (oral medications).
    To help control acne, keep your skin clean. Avoid skin products that clog your pores. Look for products that say "noncomedogenic" on the label. Wash your skin once or twice a day with a gentle soap or acne wash. Try not to scrub or pick at your pimples. This can make them worse and can cause scars.
    If you have just a few pimples to treat, you can get an acne cream without a prescription. Look for one that has benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid. These work best when used just the way the label says.It can take time to get acne under control. Keep using the same treatment for 6 to 8 weeks. You may even notice that it gets worse before it gets better. If your skin is not better after 8 weeks, try another product.
    If your pimples are really bothering you or are scarring your skin, see your doctor. A prescription gel or cream for your skin may be all you need. Your doctor may also order antibiotic pills. A mix of treatments may work best. If you are female, taking certain birth control pills may help.
    If you have acne cysts, talk to your doctor about stronger medicine. Isotretinoin (such as Accutane) works very well, but it can cause birth defects. And using Accutane may be associated with depression. Let your doctor know if you have had depression before taking this medicine. And if you are female, you must protect against pregnancy by using two forms of birth control. Even one dose of this medicine can cause birth defects if a woman takes it while she is pregnant. You cannot take isotretinoin if you are breast-feeding
    .
    How to wash your face

    Medical science has made some pretty amazing breakthroughs in the treatment of acne. However, gentle cleansing must precede treatment in order to prevent irritation, because irritation can lead to more breakouts. Keep in mind the suggestions below when you wash your face before applying medication.
    1. Look for the terms "oil-free" and "non-comedogenic" (non-acne aggravating) when selecting a facial cleanser. You know you're on the right track when references to mild, "non-irritating", and "non-overdrying" are mentioned as well.
    Many acne cleansers also include other medications. For instance, Neutrogena Acne Wash "Oil-Free Cream Cleanser" has 2% salicylic acid in it. Clean & Clear "Continuous Control Acne Cleanser" contains 10% benzoyl peroxide. I worry that the medication will be washed off with these sorts of cleansers. Also, you may unwittingly be layering medications if you start with a medication containing cleanser and then apply a second medication afterward. From my experience, a gentle cleansing followed with application of medication is what works best.
    2. Wash your face only twice per day, morning and evening. Excess washing can cause irritation. You want to be as kind to your skin as possible.
    3. Use only your bare hands to wash. A washcloth is irritating. Consider the act of washing as simply prepping your skin for medication, nothing more. Washing itself does not clear breakouts since dirt does not cause acne, so there is absolutely no need to scrub.
    4. Pat dry. Do not rub dry. Rubbing the skin is irritating, and excess irritation...that's right...can lead to more breakouts. Gently pat dry.

    Once your face is properly cleansed, you are ready to apply whichever medication you and your doctor have chosen
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    رد: Acne Vulgaris

    مُساهمة من طرف somaasom في السبت يونيو 13, 2009 3:42 pm

    thanx 4 u

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    رد: Acne Vulgaris

    مُساهمة من طرف البتول في الخميس يوليو 09, 2009 10:24 am

    thanx 4 u

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الجمعة نوفمبر 17, 2017 1:56 pm